How to make a PC motherboard?

How to make a PC motherboard?


SMT Line (Surface Mount Technology)

The first process is to solder on the PCB board all the SMDs. SMD means surface mounted devices. SMD is a term used for all the components that don’t have pins going to the other side of the PCB, but have their electrical connections on the edges like the resistors, bios, audios and sata chips, as well as the chip set itself.

Solder Paste Printer

Every part of the PCB that will be in electrical contact with a component gets coated with a special soldering paste. The solder paste acts like glue for all these chips before going into the reflow oven for definitive soldering. In that way every small component is in the right position before soldering. The solder paste is applied on the PCB space only in places where you will have components.

High-speed Chip-placer

All motherboards have dozens of very small and thin SMD components that are directly placed on the board. Our high speed Chip Placer can place from 5 to 10 components per second. It’s incredibly fast. Most of the components mounted by these machines are around one millimeter wide and must be very precisely placed on the PCB. Nowadays, motherboards have components on both sides which are different from old days. The first side that goes into the facbrication process is the reverse side. Once the reverse side is done, a machine switches the motherboard to the front side and the process starts again on the SMT Line.

Multi-Function Chip Placer

After the small components are mounted, it’s time to mount the chipset CPU socket and all the other chips that will make the motherboard work. Before being placed on the motherboard, each chip is first verified by different sets of lights to check if there is any problem with the soldering points or alignment of the chip. Chips like the chipset, audio, SATA and USB ICs are placed on the board by this machine. The same goes for the CPU Socket.

Reflow Oven

Once the motherboard has SMDs on the board, it would proceed to the Reflow Oven for soldering process. The soldering paste is melted at very high temperatures, sticking the components to the PCB. Temperatures reach as high as 245℃ as the motherboard moves through different levels. At this point electrical and mechanical connections are made.

Visual Inspection

Now that your motherboard has all the small resistors as well as the major chips and the CPU Socket, it’s time for the visual inspection. This inspection ensures there are no misplacement or missing parts.

A.O.I (Automated Optical Inspection)

As we know that components smaller than 2 millimeters cannot be checked by visual inspection, but that is why AOI machine has come into play. The Automated Optical Inspection machine checks if there are any missing or misplaced components. It also checks all the components that have visible soldering point, like the audio chip.

I.C.T (Integrated Chip Tester)

In the ICT, or Integrated Chip Tester stage, we verity every chip that has soldering point below, like the chipset, is well connected. It tests if the chip is well-soldered electrically to the board. Some boards are tested by X-Ray to verify the quality of soldering. This inspection is a high end process that allows very high-end PCB boards to be checked in more depth..

D.I.P (Dual In-Line Package)

After the testing, it’s time to proceed to the DIP or Dual Inline Package stage. The DIP stage is the second major process when making a motherboard. First you have manual insertion; with all the small components and ICs has been already added, it’s time to place all the other components that have pins going through the PCB. During this stage all the components are manually inserted. In this stage, we have a long line of employees inserting the I/O connectors power sockets, PCI-Express and ram slots, as well as the chokes and solid capacitors around the CPU Socket. We make sure each inserted part are in the right place and well positioned.

Wave Soldering

The motherboard has components on one side, with pins going through the PCB. The Wave Solder touches the back of the PCB and these pins are soldered to attach the components to the board. Thereafter, another inspection is made with manual touching-up with a soldering iron. Then heat-sinks are mounted on the board before another inspection and check-up by the ICT or Integrated Chip Tester.

Final Testing stage

The motherboard is now fully functional, but the biggest quality control still needs to be done. In this stage, our employees would be asked to test everything, from component connectivity, to the most important burn-in test. The Function Box allows easy “Switch ON / Switch OFF” of the components as well as peripherals for testing purposes. As a part of our rigorous quality testing procedure, 100% of the board‘s components are tested with basic to advanced functionality fully verified. Once the board has passed all the testing and quality analysis, the boards would be sent for packaging.