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Material of PCB

Material of PCB

Introduction to PCB

What is the main material of printed circuit board? We know that PCB is copper clad laminate, which is composed of substrate, copper foil and adhesive. Let me tell you, the substrate is an insulating laminate composed of polymer, synthetic resin and reinforcement. The surface of the substrate is covered with a layer of pure copper foil, which has high conductivity and good weldability. Its general thickness is 35 ~ 50 / MA. The copper-clad laminate on one side of the substrate covered by copper-clad foil is called single-sided copper-clad laminate, and the copper-clad laminate on both sides of the substrate covered by copper-clad foil is called double-sided copper-clad laminate; Whether the copper foil can be firmly covered on the substrate is completed by adhesive. The thickness of ordinary copper clad laminate is 1.0mm, 1.6mm and 2.0mm respectively.


Manufacturing technology of substrate materials

We can see that because of the development of industry, copper clad laminates are widely used in the production of printed circuit boards.It first appeared in the printed circuit board industry in the United States in 1947.PCB substrate material industry ,has also entered its initial stage of development. In this stage, the manufacturing technology progress, of raw materials used in substrate material manufacturing - organic resin, reinforcing materials, copper foil, etc. Gives a strong impetus to the progress of substrate material industry. Because of this, the substrate material manufacturing technology ,began to mature step by step.

Development process of PCB


The invention ,and application of integrated circuits, and the miniaturization and high-performance, of electronic products push the PCB substrate material technology, onto the track of high-performance development. Due to the rapid expansion of global market demand for PCB products, the output, variety and technology of PCB substrate materials are developing at a high speed, which makes us trust this product more and more. At this stage, there is a broad, new field in the application of substrate materials - multilayer printed circuit board. At the same time, at this stage, the structural composition of substrate materials has further developed its diversification.

In the late 1980s, portable electronic products represented by notebook computers, mobile phones and small video cameras began to enter the market. These electronic products ,are rapidly developing towards miniaturization, lightweight and multifunction, which greatly promotes the progress ,of PCB towards micro pores and micro wires. Under the above changes in PCB market demand, a new generation of multilayer board, that can realize high-density wiring - laminated ,multilayer board came out in the 1990s.

Based on substrate materials


The breakthrough of this important technology, also makes the substrate material, industry enter a new stage of development, dominated by substrate materials ,for high density interconnect (HDI) multilayer boards. In this new stage, the traditional copper clad laminate technology, is facing new challenges.

PCB substrate materials, have made new changes and innovations in manufacturing materials, production varieties, organizational structure and performance characteristics of substrates, as well as product functions.

Let's see what copper clad laminates are:

FR - 1 - is phenolic cotton paper, commonly known as electronic board, which will be more economical than FR - 2
FR-2 - phenolic cotton paper,
Fr-3 - cotton paper, epoxy resin
FR-4 - glass cloth, epoxy resin
FR-5 - glass cloth, epoxy resin
Fr-6 - ground glass, polyester
CEM-1 - cotton paper, epoxy resin (flame retardant)
Cem-2 - cotton paper, epoxy resin (non flame retardant)
CEM-3 - glass cloth, epoxy resin
Cem-4 - glass cloth, epoxy resin
Cem-5 - glass cloth, polyester
Ain - aluminum nitride
SiC - silicon carbide
G-10 - glass cloth, epoxy resin

Most commonly used FR-4

Only FR4 is the most common raw material。The definition comes from NEMA specification: L3. Refers to the test firing sample of glass fiber epoxy resin. Which is a copper free, substrate with a length of 5 inches, a width of 0.5 inches and an unrestricted thickness. When we place the sample, at an angle of 45 degrees, ignite it with a specific .Bunsen lamp under the test firing conditions. Then we remove the fire source, let the plate with flame retardant (bromine) extinguish itself, and record the seconds of "delayed combustion" after leaving the fire with a code table. We distinguished in this way.Be slowly, after ten trial firing, the total number of seconds of delayed combustion less than 50 seconds is called V-1. All glass fiber epoxy panels conforming to ⅵ - 1 are called FR-4.
There are many kinds of copper clad laminates.

How to distinguish it

  • According to different insulating materials, we divide them into paper base, glass cloth base and synthetic fiberboard
    2. We can also divide it into phenolic resin, epoxy resin, polyester and polytetrafluoroethylene according to different bonding resins
    3.In addition, we can also divide it into general type and special type according to its purpose.

Ain - aluminum nitride


Common in LED lighting products. There are positive and negative sides. And we should note that. And generally, it will contact with the heat conducting part after coating the heat conducting slurry.
Aluminum substrate is a metal based copper clad laminate with good heat dissipation function. As we know, usually, a single panel consists of three layers. Also known as circuit layer (copper foil), insulating layer and metal base layer. For high-end applications, it also has double-sided boards designed with circuit layer, insulating layer, aluminum base, insulating layer and circuit layer. As we know, usually, a single panel consists of three layers.  Also known as circuit layer (copper foil), insulating layer and metal base layer. For high-end applications, it also has double-sided boards designed with circuit layer, insulating layer, aluminum base, insulating layer and circuit layer.

LED materials

And LED aluminum substrate means ,PCB and printed circuit board, but the material of the circuit board is aluminum alloy. In the past, the material of our general circuit board was glass fiber. But because of the large heating of LED. The circuit board for LED lamps is generally aluminum substrate. Which can conduct heat quickly. The circuit board for other equipment or electrical appliances is still glass fiber board!



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